Nope. We are not going for it all, looking for the big home run. I just liked that title because I figured it would create just enough intrigue to get you to click on it…
…and it is a Coaching Cue – the topic of the show.
A coaching cue is a piece of information (usually task-oriented) that will help an athlete accomplish a skill. Typically the cues “shortcut” a complex and difficult movement or skill using a simple directive.
Coaching Cues are broken into 3 types: internal, external, normal. One type tends to be more effective than the other two, but I want you to listen to figure learn more! Most of you have probably been taught coaching cues in coaching ed courses, but how many of you were told the “why/how” of them and the method for deciphering and creating your own more effectively?
Well, let’s <unlock> Coaching Cues, then…
Benz A, Winkelman N, Porter J, and Nimphius S. Coaching instructions and cues for enhancing sprint performance. Strength Cond J 38: 1–11, 2016.
Wulf G, Prinz W, and Ho¨ ß M. Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. J Mot Behav 30: 169–179, 1998.
Winkelman NC. (2016) Attentional Focus and Cueing for Speed Development. Strength & Conditioning Journal.
Wulf, G., McNevin, N.H., & Shea, C.H. (2001a). The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 54, 1143–1154. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11765737
Wulf, G., Shea, C.H., & Park, J. (2001b). Attention and motor performance: Preferences for and advantages of an external focus. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 335–344. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11770783
McNevin, N.H., Shea, C.H., & Wulf, G. (2003). Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances learning. Psychological Research, 67, 22–29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12589447
Coker C. Optimizing External Focus of Attention Instructions: The Role of Attainability. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2016, 4, 116 -125. http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123/jmld.2015-0024
Wulf G, McConnel N, Gartner M, and Schwarz A. Enhancing the learning of sport skills through external-focus feedback. J Mot Behav 34: 171–182, 2002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12057890
Wulf G, McNevin NH, Fuchs T, Ritter F, and Toole T. Attentional focus in complex skill learning. Res Q Exerc Sport 71: 229– 239, 2000. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10999260
Wu WF, Porter JM, and Brown LE. Effect of attentional focus strategies on peak force and performance in the standing long jump. J Strength Cond Res 26: 1226–1231, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082793
Wulf G, Zachry T, Granados C, and Dufek J. Increases in jump-and-reach height through an external focus of attention. Int J Sports Sci Coaching 2: 275–284, 2007. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/174795407782233182
Porter JM, Nolan RP, Ostrowski EJ, and Wulf G. Directing attention externally enhances agility performance: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the efficacy of using verbal instructions to focus attention. Front Psychol 1: 1–7, 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153821/
Stoate I and Wulf G. Does the attentional focus adopted by swimmers affect their performance? Int J Sports Sci Coaching 6: 99–108, 2011. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/1747-95184.108.40.206?journalCode=spoa
Nater S and Gallimore R. You Haven’t Taught Until They Have Learned: John Wooden’s Teaching Principles and Practices. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, 2010. https://www.amazon.com/Havent-Taught-Until-They-Learned/dp/1885693664
Hadler R, Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G, and Schild JFG. Children’s learning of tennis skills is facilitated by external focus instructions. Motriz: Revista de Educacao Fısica 20: 418–422, 2014. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742014000400418
Shafizadeh M, McMorris T, and Sproule J. Effect of different external attention of focus instruction on learning of golf putting skill. Perceptual Mot skills 113: 622–670, 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22185080
Parr R and Button C. End-point focus of attention: Learning the “catch” in rowing. Int J Sport Psychol 40: 616–635, 2009. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288580062_End-point_focus_of_attention_Learning_the_’Catch’_in_Rowing
Perkins-Ceccato N, Passmore SR, and Lee TD. Effects of focus of attention depend on golfers’ skill. J Sports Sci 21: 593–600, 2003. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12875310
Porter JM, Anton PM, Wikoff NM, and Ostrowski JB. Instructing skilled athletes to focus their attention externally at greater distances enhances jumping performance. J Strength Cond Res 27: 2073–2078, 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23222082
Porter JM, Anton PM, and Wu WF. Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances standing long jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 26: 2389–2393, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067252
Liao CM and Masters RS. Analogy learning: A means to implicit motor learning. J Sports Sci 19: 307–319, 2001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11354610